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          广东省人民政府首页  >  要闻动态  >  广东要闻

          李肇星回忆录:戈尔巴乔夫曾称最敬佩邓小平

          来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年04月23日 04:41:46
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          分分彩一天刷10万流水【推荐】客服QQ【306619052】诚招代理,腾讯5,10分,欢乐生肖,最高返水100反9,最高赔率,正规信誉大平台,平台24h提供注册及登录。李肇星回忆录:戈尔巴乔夫曾称最敬佩邓小平

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          (  对)(于)(我)(们)(这)(些)(外)(交)(官)(来)(说)(,最)(难)(弄)(懂)(也)(最)(该)(弄)(懂)(的)(一)(个)(事)(件)(就)(是)(苏)(联)(解)(体)(。一)(个)(超)(级)(大)(国)(竟)(在)(短)(短)(几)(年)(内)(土)(崩)(瓦)(解)(,不)(禁)(令)(人)(感)(慨)(万)(千)(。事)(情)(得)(从)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(说)(起)(。  2004年)(6月)(初)(,我)(随)(胡)(锦)(涛)(主)(席)(访)(问)(波)(兰)(、匈)(牙)(利)(、罗)(马)(尼)(亚)(和)(乌)(兹)(别)(克)(斯)(坦)(。刚)(到)(波)(兰)(的)(第)(二)(天)(便)(得)(到)(消)(息)(,美)(国)(政)(府)(将)(于)(11日)(为)(不)(久)(前)(去)(世)(的)(前)(总)(统)(里)(根)(举)(行)(国)(葬)(。胡)(主)(席)(指)(示)(我)(作)(为)(他)(的)(特)(使)(代)(表)(中)(国)(政)(府)(出)(席)(葬)(礼)(。乘)(班)(机)(去)(已)(经)(来)(不)(及)(了)(,幸)(好)(波)(兰)(总)(统)(克)(瓦)(希)(涅)(夫)(斯)(基)(很)(热)(情)(,让)(我)(和)(波)(兰)(政)(府)(特)(使)(、前)(总)(统)(瓦)(文)(萨)(一)(起)(搭)(乘)(波)(方)(专)(机)(前)(往)(华)(盛)(顿)(。这)(架)(专)(机)(就)(是)(2010年)(5月)(10日)(失)(事)(的)(波)(兰)(总)(统)(卡)(钦)(斯)(基)(那)(架)(飞)(机)(。  我)(同)(秘)(书)(张)(昆)(生)(和)(瓦)(文)(萨)(一)(起)(乘)(坐)(图)(154客)(机)(去)(参)(加)(里)(根)(的)(葬)(礼)(。到)(了)(华)(盛)(顿)(后)(才)(知)(道)(,参)(加)(里)(根)(葬)(礼)(的)(来)(宾)(还)(有)(英)(国)(前)(首)(相)(撒)(切)(尔)(夫)(人)(、前)(苏)(联)(领)(导)(人)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(等)(。  华)(盛)(顿)(的)(活)(动)(结)(束)(后)(,我)(要)(赶)(回)(去)(继)(续)(参)(加)(胡)(主)(席)(的)(欧)(亚)(之)(行)(。那)(时)(,胡)(主)(席)(代)(表)(团)(已)(经)(离)(开)(波)(兰)(,我)(们)(也)(不)(好)(意)(思)(再)(搭)(乘)(波)(兰)(政)(府)(的)(专)(机)(,就)(坐)(了)(国)(际)(航)(班)(。  我)(把)(包)(放)(好)(,坐)(下)(来)(一)(抬)(头)(,发)(现)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(也)(坐)(在)(里)(面)(。他)(显)(然)(也)(看)(到)(了)(我)(。1989年)(5月)(他)(作)(为)(苏)(共)(中)(央)(总)(书)(记)(访)(华)(会)(见)(邓)(小)(平)(同)(志)(时)(,我)(也)(在)(场)(。他)(好)(像)(对)(我)(还)(有)(点)(儿)(印)(象)(,通)(过)(翻)(译)(主)(动)(与)(我)(打)(招)(呼)(。  我)(当)(然)(很)(高)(兴)(与)(这)(位)(前)(苏)(联)(领)(导)(人)(聊)(天)(。开)(始)(几)(分)(钟)(,我)(们)(聊)(了)(一)(些)(轻)(松)(的)(话)(题)(。我)(心)(里)(想)(,当)(年)(的)(超)(级)(大)(国)(苏)(联)(那)(么)(快)(分)(崩)(离)(析)(,冷)(战)(就)(那)(么)(稀)(里)(糊)(涂)(地)(结)(束)(了)(,难)(得)(有)(机)(会)(与)(直)(接)(当)(事)(人)(见)(面)(。我)(很)(客)(气)(地)(对)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(说)(:“我)(很)(荣)(幸)(与)(阁)(下)(见)(面)(,不)(想)(失)(去)(今)(天)(这)(个)(请)(教)(机)(会)(。多)(年)(来)(,包)(括)(我)(在)(内)(的)(许)(多)(中)(国)(朋)(友)(一)(直)(特)(别)(想)(知)(道)(,为)(什)(么)(那)(么)(大)(的)(苏)(联)(,那)(么)(强)(的)(社)(会)(主)(义)(大)(国)(,在)(短)(短)(的)(几)(年)(内)(就)(解)(体)(了)(?主)(要)(原)(因)(是)(什)(么)(?”为)(了)(避)(免)(让)(对)(方)(尴)(尬)(,我)(特)(意)(补)(充)(了)(一)(句)(:“这)(个)(问)(题)(不)(太)(外)(交)(,您)(可)(以)(回)(答)(,也)(可)(以)(不)(回)(答)(。”  戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(犹)(豫)(了)(片)(刻)(,面)(色)(凝)(重)(地)(说)(:“关)(于)(这)(个)(问)(题)(,我)(想)(告)(诉)(你)(的)(是)(,在)(各)(国)(领)(导)(人)(当)(中)(,我)(最)(敬)(佩)(的)(是)(邓)(小)(平)(先)(生)(。而)(我)(们)(那)(里)(没)(有)(个)(邓)(小)(平)(。”说)(完)(,戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(再)(也)(没)(有)(往)(下)(说)(什)(么)(。他)(这)(句)(话)(有)(什)(么)(含)(义)(?只)(能)(让)(人)(们)(去)(猜)(测)(了)(。之)(后)(,我)(们)(又)(找)(到)(一)(些)(轻)(松)(话)(题)(聊)(了)(很)(久)(。  苏)(联)(的)(电)(视)(机)(是)(专)(门)(给)(苏)(联)(的)(敌)(人)(生)(产)(的)(  与)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(的)(巧)(遇)(,把)(我)(带)(进)(了)(那)(段)(难)(忘)(的)(历)(史)(。  苏)(联)(曾)(经)(是)(一)(个)(令)(人)(向)(往)(的)(国)(度)(。作)(为)(世)(界)(上)(第)(一)(个)(社)(会)(主)(义)(国)(家)(,苏)(联)(在)(短)(短)(一)(二)(十)(年)(时)(间)(里)(就)(成)(为)(欧)(洲)(第)(一)(、世)(界)(第)(二)(强)(国)(,在)(冷)(战)(时)(期)(成)(为)(两)(极)(世)(界)(的)(一)(极)(。后)(来)(苏)(联)(的)(变)(化)(却)(出)(人)(意)(料)(。苏)(联)(不)(但)(没)(有)(完)(成)(建)(设)(现)(代)(化)(国)(家)(的)(历)(史)(性)(任)(务)(,反)(而)(在)(同)(资)(本)(主)(义)(世)(界)(的)(竞)(争)(中)(掉)(队)(。在)(国)(内)(,国)(民)(经)(济)(的)(发)(展)(陷)(入)(停)(顿)(,各)(种)(社)(会)(矛)(盾)(日)(益)(突)(出)(,党)(和)(政)(府)(失)(去)(越)(来)(越)(多)(民)(众)(的)(支)(持)(和)(拥)(护)(。在)(国)(际)(上)(,苏)(联)(经)(常)(搞)(大)(国)(沙)(文)(主)(义)(,导)(致)(社)(会)(主)(义)(阵)(营)(分)(化)(,后)(来)(发)(动)(了)(侵)(略)(阿)(富)(汗)(的)(战)(争)(,在)(国)(际)(道)(义)(上)(陷)(入)(被)(动)(。  1985年)(3月)(,戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(出)(任)(苏)(共)(中)(央)(总)(书)(记)(,他)(打)(着)(“新)(思)(维)(”的)(旗)(号)(开)(始)(改)(革)(,试)(图)(彻)(底)(摒)(弃)(过)(去)(的)(政)(治)(体)(制)(,建)(立)(“人)(道)(的)(”、“民)(主)(的)(”社)(会)(主)(义)(。1988年)(底)(,我)(随)(钱)(其)(琛)(外)(长)(去)(苏)(联)(访)(问)(的)(时)(候)(,苏)(联)(的)(改)(革)(已)(经)(如)(火)(如)(荼)(,任)(何)(有)(趣)(的)(话)(题)(都)(不)(会)(比)(谈)(论)(改)(革)(来)(得)(更)(热)(烈)(。  有)(一)(次)(,我)(和)(我)(的)(苏)(联)(陪)(同)(驱)(车)(从)(100多)(公)(里)(以)(外)(的)(地)(方)(赶)(往)(莫)(斯)(科)(。这)(位)(苏)(联)(朋)(友)(50多)(岁)(,担)(任)(中)(层)(干)(部)(多)(年)(,读)(过)(不)(少)(书)(,英)(语)(讲)(得)(好)(,待)(人)(热)(情)(,言)(谈)(幽)(默)(,看)(问)(题)(尖)(锐)(。我)(们)(一)(路)(侃)(大)(山)(。这)(位)(苏)(联)(朋)(友)(总)(是)(把)(话)(题)(转)(到)(改)(革)(上)(。他)(说)(,苏)(联)(老)(百)(姓)(对)(邓)(小)(平)(改)(革)(开)(放)(政)(策)(给)(中)(国)(老)(百)(姓)(带)(来)(的)(实)(际)(利)(益)(了)(解)(得)(并)(不)(充)(分)(,但)(传)(到)(这)(里)(的)(消)(息)(已)(经)(足)(以)(让)(人)(羡)(慕)(了)(。我)(说)(,我)(们)(改)(革)(10年)(步)(子)(的)(确)(迈)(得)(不)(小)(,但)(也)(遇)(到)(了)(一)(些)(困)(难)(。  他)(不)(让)(我)(说)(下)(去)(,拍)(拍)(我)(的)(手)(说)(:关)(键)(是)(你)(们)(手)(里)(已)(经)(拿)(到)(了)(实)(实)(在)(在)(的)(东)(西)(。苏)(联)(改)(革)(的)(决)(心)(也)(很)(大)(,而)(且)(越)(来)(越)(大)(。在)(大)(城)(市)(,在)(思)(想)(理)(论)(方)(面)(,改)(革)(的)(气)(氛)(很)(浓)(。问)(题)(是)(,普)(通)(工)(人)(和)(农)(民)(还)(没)(有)(得)(到)(什)(么)(明)(显)(的)(实)(惠)(,而)(实)(惠)(是)(最)(贴)(近)(人)(心)(的)(东)(西)(。  我)(记)(得)(,戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(那)(次)(在)(会)(见)(钱)(其)(琛)(外)(长)(时)(,语)(气)(轻)(松)(、滔)(滔)(不)(绝)(地)(讲)(到)(国)(内)(改)(革)(、苏)(中)(关)(系)(、国)(际)(大)(势)(,谈)(了)(很)(长)(时)(间)(。戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(自)(信)(地)(说)(:整)(个)(社)(会)(主)(义)(世)(界)(都)(在)(经)(历)(着)(一)(场)(大)(变)(革)(。苏)(联)(的)(改)(革)(正)(在)(加)(速)(。过)(去)(搞)(过)(几)(次)(改)(革)(,结)(果)(是)(半)(途)(而)(废)(,主)(要)(是)(旧)(的)(行)(政)(体)(制)(、老)(的)(思)(维)(方)(式)(使)(之)(无)(法)(进)(行)(下)(去)(。所)(以)(,必)(须)(进)(行)(政)(治)(体)(制)(改)(革)(,必)(须)(实)(行)(民)(主)(化)(,加)(强)(苏)(维)(埃)(的)(作)(用)(,改)(革)(管)(理)(机)(制)(。我)(们)(走)(在)(正)(确)(的)(道)(路)(上)(,要)(继)(续)(往)(前)(走)(。  在)(苏)(联)(改)(革)(之)(初)(,外)(交)(部)(一)(位)(领)(导)(听)(中)(共)(中)(央)(总)(书)(记)(胡)(耀)(邦)(说)(过)(这)(样)(的)(话)(:戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(先)(搞)(政)(治)(体)(制)(改)(革)(,不)(知)(道)(这)(个)(冒)(失)(鬼)(最)(后)(结)(果)(会)(是)(什)(么)(样)(子)(。不)(改)(善)(老)(百)(姓)(的)(生)(活)(就)(触)(及)(上)(层)(建)(筑)(,搞)(得)(好)(不)(容)(易)(,搞)(不)(好)(很)(危)(险)(。果)(不)(其)(然)(,改)(革)(没)(几)(年)(,苏)(共)(的)(执)(政)(党)(地)(位)(就)(摇)(摇)(欲)(坠)(。国)(内)(积)(蓄)(已)(久)(的)(民)(族)(矛)(盾)(爆)(发)(,15个)(加)(盟)(共)(和)(国)(全)(部)(通)(过)(主)(权)(独)(立)(宣)(言)(。苏)(联)(经)(济)(陷)(入)(全)(面)(停)(滞)(,人)(民)(日)(常)(生)(活)(用)(品)(的)(供)(应)(出)(现)(了)(严)(重)(短)(缺)(。这)(些)(都)(是)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(始)(料)(未)(及)(的)(。  苏)(联)(解)(体)(前)(,我)(去)(过)(苏)(联)(两)(次)(。那)(个)(时)(候)(,凡)(是)(到)(过)(苏)(联)(的)(人)(,回)(国)(时)(大)(多)(会)(带)(两)(种)(礼)(物)(,一)(种)(是)(呢)(子)(大)(衣)(,十)(多)(美)(元)(一)(件)(,不)(少)(人)(一)(次)(就)(买)(好)(几)(件)(。另)(一)(种)(是)(俄)(罗)(斯)(套)(娃)(。不)(是)(不)(想)(买)(别)(的)(,而)(是)(没)(有)(别)(的)(好)(东)(西)(可)(买)(。这)(种)(娃)(娃)(,我)(们)(中)(国)(人)(称)(为)(“套)(娃)(”,就)(是)(娃)(娃)(套)(娃)(娃)(,俄)(语)(称)(为)(“玛)(特)(廖)(什)(卡)(”。在)(俄)(罗)(斯)(乡)(村)(里)(,“玛)(特)(廖)(娜)(”是)(最)(常)(见)(的)(姑)(娘)(名)(字)(,“玛)(特)(廖)(什)(卡)(”是)(“玛)(特)(廖)(娜)(”的)(昵)(称)(,而)(这)(两)(个)(名)(字)(又)(源)(于)(拉)(丁)(文)(的)(“母)(亲)(”。它)(与)(套)(娃)(的)(特)(征)(颇)(为)(贴)(近)(,都)(寓)(意)(着)(旺)(盛)(的)(生)(命)(力)(、健)(康)(壮)(实)(的)(身)(体)(和)(人)(丁)(兴)(旺)(的)(后)(代)(。传)(统)(的)(套)(娃)(造)(型)(大)(多)(是)(一)(个)(圆)(脸)(农)(村)(姑)(娘)((也)(有)(人)(说)(是)(俄)(罗)(斯)(大)(婶)()形)(象)(,红)(扑)(扑)(的)(双)(颊)(,大)(大)(的)(眼)(睛)(,红)(红)(的)(小)(嘴)(,略)(带)(微)(笑)(,身)(穿)(绣)(花)(衬)(衣)(和)(长)(马)(甲)(,系)(着)(围)(裙)(,有)(浓)(郁)(的)(俄)(罗)(斯)(民)(族)(色)(彩)(。木)(头)(娃)(娃)(的)(腰)(部)(可)(以)(打)(开)(,里)(面)(套)(着)(一)(个)(稍)(小)(的)(娃)(娃)(,再)(打)(开)(,又)(套)(一)(个)(,一)(般)(为)(连)(续)(套)(5至)(8个)(的)(,还)(有)(的)(能)(连)(续)(套)(十)(几)(个)(,其)(中)(最)(里)(面)(的)(那)(个)(娃)(娃)(,甚)(至)(小)(到)(像)(黄)(豆)(般)(大)(小)(,可)(是)(依)(然)(须)(眉)(毕)(现)(、栩)(栩)(如)(生)(。  苏)(联)(高)(科)(技)(发)(达)(,能)(把)(人)(送)(上)(太)(空)(,但)(苏)(联)(的)(发)(展)(又)(是)(畸)(形)(的)(,轻)(工)(产)(品)(匮)(乏)(,远)(远)(不)(能)(满)(足)(民)(众)(的)(消)(费)(需)(求)(。俄)(罗)(斯)(人)(很)(有)(幽)(默)(感)(,颇)(能)(苦)(中)(作)(乐)(。一)(个)(中)(国)(学)(者)(讲)(了)(个)(故)(事)(,说)(有)(一)(次)(他)(在)(莫)(斯)(科)(时)(路)(过)(一)(家)(电)(视)(机)(商)(店)(,看)(到)(里)(面)(都)(是)(俄)(罗)(斯)(生)(产)(的)(笨)(重)(的)(黑)(白)(电)(视)(机)(。他)(好)(奇)(地)(进)(去)(望)(望)(,陪)(同)(他)(的)(苏)(联)(朋)(友)(拉)(了)(他)(一)(下)(,说)(:“你)(可)(千)(万)(别)(买)(这)(家)(伙)(,它)(说)(不)(定)(会)(爆)(炸)(。我)(们)(这)(儿)(流)(行)(的)(说)(法)(是)(,苏)(联)(的)(电)(视)(机)(是)(专)(门)(给)(苏)(联)(的)(敌)(人)(生)(产)(的)(。”  那)(个)(时)(候)(,中)(国)(驻)(苏)(使)(馆)(工)(作)(人)(员)(经)(常)(提)(醒)(赴)(苏)(出)(差)(或)(工)(作)(的)(朋)(友)(,从)(北)(京)(来)(的)(时)(候)(最)(好)(多)(带)(些)(日)(用)(品)(。从)(事)(中)(俄)(民)(间)(边)(贸)(的)(人)(还)(有)(清)(晰)(的)(记)(忆)(:那)(时)(苏)(联)(的)(小)(朋)(友)(几)(乎)(没)(有)(什)(么)(零)(食)(吃)(,会)(攒)(很)(多)(其)(他)(的)(东)(西)(跟)(我)(们)(换)(泡)(泡)(糖)(。当)(时)(,苏)(联)(老)(百)(姓)(期)(盼)(改)(革)(最)(好)(能)(先)(让)(他)(们)(的)(餐)(桌)(发)(生)(实)(质)(性)(变)(化)(。  就)(是)(这)(个)(实)(力)(上)(曾)(经)(和)(美)(国)(平)(起)(平)(坐)(的)(超)(级)(大)(国)(—社)(会)(主)(义)(苏)(联)(,在)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(执)(政)(仅)(仅)(5年)(后)(,就)(从)(地)(球)(上)(消)(失)(了)(,真)(是)(“其)(兴)(也)(勃)(焉)(,其)(亡)(也)(忽)(焉)(”。  对)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(的)(改)(革)(,国)(际)(上)(至)(今)(仍)(然)(众)(说)(纷)(纭)(。是)(非)(曲)(直)(,只)(能)(由)(历)(史)(去)(作)(结)(论)(。可)(以)(肯)(定)(的)(是)(,我)(们)(中)(国)(人)(有)(理)(由)(庆)(幸)(有)(小)(平)(同)(志)(这)(样)(伟)(大)(的)(领)(导)(人)(。难)(怪)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(在)(20年)(后)(说)(他)(最)(敬)(佩)(邓)(小)(平)(先)(生)(。  改)(革)(背)(离)(了)(“完)(善)(社)(会)(主)(义)(”的)(宗)(旨)(和)(轨)(道)(  我)(曾)(利)(用)(各)(种)(机)(会)(向)(30多)(位)(外)(国)(领)(导)(人)(请)(教)(他)(们)(对)(苏)(联)(解)(体)(原)(因)(的)(看)(法)(,得)(到)(的)(回)(答)(涉)(及)(上)(层)(腐)(败)(、信)(仰)(异)(化)(、言)(行)(不)(一)(、法)(制)(不)(健)(全)(、经)(济)(体)(制)(僵)(化)(、贫)(富)(悬)(殊)(、民)(族)(政)(策)(不)(好)(、与)(美)(争)(霸)(失)(败)(等)(等)(。一)(位)(多)(次)(访)(问)(过)(苏)(联)(的)(美)(国)(前)(国)(务)(卿)(说)(,苏)(联)(比)(美)(国)(经)(济)(落)(后)(,但)(苏)(共)(领)(导)(人)(拥)(有)(的)(豪)(华)(轿)(车)(和)(别)(墅)(比)(美)(国)(总)(统)(多)(。2009年)(我)(参)(加)(全)(国)(人)(大)(与)(俄)(罗)(斯)(国)(家)(杜)(马)(的)(交)(流)(活)(动)(时)(,一)(位)(前)(苏)(共)(党)(员)(心)(情)(沉)(重)(地)(告)(诉)(我)(:苏)(共)(在)(有)(35万)(名)(党)(员)(的)(时)(候)(夺)(得)(政)(权)(,在)(有)(550万)(名)(党)(员)(时)(打)(败)(希)(特)(勒)(,在)(有)(近)(2000万)(党)(员)(时)(失)(去)(政)(权)(……  俄)(罗)(斯)(有)(人)(说)(,苏)(联)(解)(体)(的)(主)(要)(原)(因)(是)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(在)(1985至)(1990年)(间)(实)(施)(的)(政)(治)(经)(济)(改)(革)(缺)(乏)(深)(思)(熟)(虑)(;苏)(共)(的)(危)(机)(促)(成)(了)(苏)(联)(的)(崩)(溃)(;民)(族)(矛)(盾)(激)(化)(也)(加)(快)(了)(苏)(联)(的)(解)(体)(。政)(治)(斗)(争)(、民)(族)(矛)(盾)(和)(社)(会)(问)(题)(相)(互)(交)(织)(,相)(互)(影)(响)(,使)(得)(苏)(联)(解)(体)(不)(可)(避)(免)(。  戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(1991年)(5月)(对)(到)(访)(的)(江)(泽)(民)(总)(书)(记)(说)(:苏)(联)(在)(坚)(持)(社)(会)(主)(义)(的)(前)(提)(下)(,对)(所)(有)(制)(、政)(治)(和)(民)(族)(等)(政)(策)(进)(行)(了)(全)(面)(改)(革)(。俗)(话)(说)(,不)(要)(惊)(动)(睡)(觉)(的)(人)(。而)(他)(们)(恰)(恰)(把)(睡)(觉)(的)(人)(都)(惊)(动)(了)(,把)(魔)(鬼)(从)(瓶)(子)(里)(放)(出)(来)(了)(。这)(说)(明)(,戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(当)(时)(可)(能)(已)(经)(意)(识)(到)(自)(己)(推)(行)(的)(改)(革)(出)(了)(问)(题)(,但)(他)(已)(无)(力)(回)(天)(。  一)(位)(中)(国)(专)(家)(说)(,戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(上)(台)(以)(后)(,看)(到)(苏)(联)(社)(会)(问)(题)(成)(堆)(,便)(对)(社)(会)(各)(方)(面)(进)(行)(改)(革)(,这)(个)(思)(路)(是)(对)(的)(。但)(改)(革)(逐)(渐)(背)(离)(了)(原)(来)(“完)(善)(社)(会)(主)(义)(”的)(宗)(旨)(和)(轨)(道)(,最)(后)(葬)(送)(了)(社)(会)(主)(义)(。  还)(有)(人)(说)(,从)(俄)(国)(历)(史)(看)(,每)(70至)(80年)(要)(衰)(败)(一)(次)(,只)(有)(改)(革)(才)(能)(重)(新)(振)(兴)(。1999年)(12月)(31日)(,叶)(利)(钦)(总)(统)(在)(辞)(职)(演)(说)(中)(称)(:“我)(已)(完)(成)(了)(一)(生)(中)(应)(做)(的)(最)(重)(要)(的)(事)(情)(,俄)(罗)(斯)(永)(远)(不)(会)(回)(到)(过)(去)(。”叶)(利)(钦)(的)(接)(班)(人)(普)(京)(总)(统)(曾)(说)(,苏)(联)(解)(体)(是)(20世)(纪)(最)(大)(的)(地)(缘)(政)(治)(灾)(难)(性)(悲)(剧)(,谁)(不)(为)(苏)(联)(的)(解)(体)(感)(到)(惋)(惜)(,谁)(就)(没)(有)(良)(心)(;谁)(要)(想)(着)(再)(重)(新)(回)(到)(苏)(联)(,那)(是)(没)(有)(头)(脑)(。  苏)(联)(解)(体)(,毁)(灭)(的)(是)(一)(种)(特)(定)(的)(“社)(会)(主)(义)(”模)(式)(,而)(不)(是)(社)(会)(主)(义)(理)(念)(。中)(国)(的)(改)(革)(开)(放)(和)(经)(济)(发)(展)(再)(次)(表)(明)(,马)(克)(思)(主)(义)(没)(有)(过)(时)(。  2011年)(12月)(25日)(,《人)(民)(日)(报)(》就)(苏)(联)(解)(体)(20周)(年)(发)(表)(评)(论)(说)(,苏)(联)(解)(体)(是)(20世)(纪)(最)(具)(震)(撼)(力)(的)(事)(件)(之)(一)(。印)(有)(五)(角)(星)(和)(镰)(刀)(锤)(头)(的)(红)(旗)(在)(克)(里)(姆)(林)(宫)(上)(空)(悄)(然)(滑)(落)(,割)(断)(了)(一)(个)(大)(国)(苦)(难)(与)(辉)(煌)(交)(织)(的)(历)(史)(。  作)(为)(一)(个)(外)(交)(官)(,我)(认)(为)(苏)(联)(最)(不)(该)(做)(的)(傻)(事)(就)(是)(在)(国)(际)(上)(搞)(大)(国)(沙)(文)(主)(义)(、霸)(权)(主)(义)(,把)(中)(国)(、南)(斯)(拉)(夫)(等)(国)(家)(推)(向)(自)(己)(的)(对)(立)(面)(,还)(入)(侵)(阿)(富)(汗)(,自)(己)(最)(终)(付)(出)(了)(沉)(重)(代)(价)(。它)(至)(少)(应)(该)(知)(道)(中)(国)(人)(民)(又)(善)(良)(又)(勇)(敢)(。自)(称)(信)(仰)(马)(列)(的)(苏)(联)(当)(权)(者)(也)(至)(少)(应)(知)(道)(马)(克)(思)(年)(轻)(时)(就)(赞)(扬)(过)(不)(怕)(穷)(、不)(怕)(死)(的)(阿)(富)(汗)(人)(民)(曾)(击)(败)(一)(个)(“日)(不)(落)(”帝)(国)(的)(入)(侵)(……  俄)(罗)(斯)(是)(一)(个)(伟)(大)(的)(民)(族)(,产)(生)(过)(托)(尔)(斯)(泰)(、高)(尔)(基)(等)(伟)(人)(。俄)(罗)(斯)(有)(一)(句)(名)(言)(:“别)(哭)(了)(,莫)(斯)(科)(不)(相)(信)(眼)(泪)(。现)(在)(不)(该)(哭)(,而)(该)(行)(动)(。”这)(也)(是)(前)(苏)(联)(电)(影)(《莫)(斯)(科)(不)(相)(信)(眼)(泪)(》中)(的)(一)(句)(经)(典)(台)(词)(,不)(断)(激)(励)(俄)(罗)(斯)(人)(民)(拼)(搏)(奋)(进)(。  1991年)(苏)(联)(解)(体)(之)(后)(,俄)(罗)(斯)(政)(府)(开)(始)(引)(入)(西)(方)(的)(改)(革)(方)(案)(,实)(施)(“休)(克)(疗)(法)(”,推)(行)(私)(有)(化)(,经)(济)(几)(乎)(崩)(溃)(。1998年)(,俄)(罗)(斯)(又)(经)(历)(了)(一)(次)(比)(较)(大)(的)(金)(融)(危)(机)(。经)(过)(几)(年)(的)(困)(难)(与)(转)(型)(,在)(俄)(罗)(斯)(人)(民)(和)(几)(届)(政)(府)(努)(力)(下)(,到)(新)(世)(纪)(初)(俄)(罗)(斯)(经)(济)(终)(见)(曙)(光)(。普)(京)(总)(统)(上)(台)(后)(,纠)(正)(了)(90年)(代)(机)(械)(搬)(用)(西)(方)(经)(验)(的)(错)(误)(做)(法)(,积)(极)(探)(索)(符)(合)(俄)(罗)(斯)(国)(情)(的)(改)(革)(与)(发)(展)(道)(路)(。  这)(两)(年)(,我)(去)(俄)(罗)(斯)(时)(发)(现)(,莫)(斯)(科)(越)(来)(越)(漂)(亮)(,傻)(大)(黑)(粗)(的)(商)(品)(和)(苏)(联)(时)(代)(的)(老)(汽)(车)(几)(近)(绝)(迹)(。俄)(罗)(斯)(套)(娃)(也)(不)(断)(有)(新)(的)(变)(化)(。套)(娃)(人)(物)(造)(型)(已)(超)(出)(传)(统)(村)(姑)(的)(范)(围)(,演)(艺)(明)(星)(、球)(星)(甚)(至)(领)(袖)(人)(物)(,都)(成)(了)(套)(娃)(的)(形)(象)(。这)(从)(一)(个)(侧)(面)(折)(射)(出)(俄)(罗)(斯)(社)(会)(从)(封)(闭)(走)(向)(开)(放)(的)(变)(迁)(。  这)(几)(年)(去)(过)(俄)(罗)(斯)(的)(同)(事)(回)(来)(都)(说)(,古)(老)(的)(俄)(罗)(斯)(变)(化)(快)(,真)(是)(一)(年)(一)(个)(样)(。这)(体)(现)(在)(社)(会)(的)(方)(方)(面)(面)(。从)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(时)(代)(到)(叶)(利)(钦)(、普)(京)(、梅)(德)(韦)(杰)(夫)(时)(代)(,再)(到)(第)(二)(个)(普)(京)(时)(代)(,俄)(罗)(斯)(经)(历)(了)(一)(个)(衰)(落)(、恢)(复)(、重)(振)(、复)(兴)(的)(过)(程)(,走)(过)(一)(些)(弯)(路)(,但)(注)(意)(吸)(取)(教)(训)(,经)(济)(已)(经)(进)(入)(相)(对)(稳)(定)(的)(发)(展)(期)(,国)(力)(明)(显)(恢)(复)(。近)(年)(来)(,俄)(罗)(斯)(在)(依)(托)(传)(统)(能)(源)(资)(源)(和)(军)(工)(产)(业)(的)(同)(时)(,更)(加)(重)(视)(创)(新)(,道)(路)(越)(走)(越)(宽)(。  俄)(罗)(斯)(幅)(员)(辽)(阔)(,资)(源)(丰)(富)(。世)(界)(上)(只)(有)(在)(一)(个)(国)(家)(能)(够)(找)(到)(门)(捷)(列)(夫)(化)(学)(元)(素)(周)(期)(表)(里)(几)(乎)(所)(有)(的)(元)(素)(,那)(就)(是)(俄)(罗)(斯)(。它)(潜)(力)(巨)(大)(。冷)(战)(结)(束)(20多)(年)(后)(,俄)(罗)(斯)(又)(走)(上)(振)(兴)(之)(路)(,好)(像)(应)(验)(了)(中)(国)(人)(的)(一)(句)(老)(话)(:“三)(十)(年)(河)(东)(,三)(十)(年)(河)(西)(。”  我)(对)(中)(俄)(友)(好)(的)(前)(景)(充)(满)(信)(心)(。  内)(容)(提)(要)(  《说)(不)(尽)(的)(外)(交)(》是)(中)(国)(第)(九)(任)(外)(交)(部)(长)(李)(肇)(星)(的)(首)(部)(外)(事)(回)(忆)(录)(。作)(者)(全)(面)(回)(顾)(了)(自)(己)(近)(半)(个)(世)(纪)(的)(外)(交)(生)(涯)(,记)(录)(了)(与)(各)(国)(政)(要)(的)(私)(人)(交)(往)(、应)(对)(各)(种)(外)(交)(问)(题)(的)(丰)(富)(经)(验)(,并)(首)(次)(披)(露)(美)(国)(炸)(馆)(事)(件)(、“9·11”恐)(怖)(袭)(击)(、中)(美)(汇)(率)(博)(弈)(等)(重)(大)(外)(交)(事)(件)(背)(后)(的)(内)(幕)(。李)(肇)(星)(还)(用)(质)(朴)(幽)(默)(的)(语)(言)(,首)(次)(公)(开)(自)(己)(的)(工)(作)(心)(得)(:如)(何)(在)(国)(与)(国)(之)(间)(做)(人)(情)(;饭)(桌)(上)(有)(哪)(些)(学)(问)(;发)(言)(人)(为)(何)(要)(避)(免)(说)(“无)(可)(奉)(告)(”,不)(知)(道)(答)(案)(、忘)(记)(答)(案)(或)(答)(错)(了)(该)(怎)(么)(办)(,如)(何)(巧)(妙)(地)(回)(答)(各)(种)(刁)(钻)(问)(题)(……
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          对)(于)(我)(们)(这)(些)(外)(交)(官)(来)(说)(,最)(难)(弄)(懂)(也)(最)(该)(弄)(懂)(的)(一)(个)(事)(件)(就)(是)(苏)(联)(解)(体)(。一)(个)(超)(级)(大)(国)(竟)(在)(短)(短)(几)(年)(内)(土)(崩)(瓦)(解)(,不)(禁)(令)(人)(感)(慨)(万)(千)(。事)(情)(得)(从)(戈)(尔)(巴)(乔)(夫)(说)(起)(。2004年)(6月)(初)(
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