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          广东省人民政府首页  >  要闻动态  >  广东要闻

          林毓生:在转型的时代中一个知识分子的沉思

          来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年04月21日 06:54:43
          【字体: 】

          10分分彩计划软件平台直属招商最高㊖100返9♔诚招代理永久注册网站【QQ 7915171】腾讯分分彩,腾讯5分彩,腾讯10分彩,时时彩龙虎和,意彩彩票代理,意彩官网,意彩平台林毓生:在转型的时代中一个知识分子的沉思

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          (  从)(辛)(亥)(到)(现)(在)(,我)(们)(国)(家)(经)(历)(了)(各)(式)(各)(样)(的)(革)(命)(与)(各)(式)(各)(样)(的)(论)(战)(,但)(到)(现)(在)(却)(仍)(然)(面)(临)(着)(两)(个)(重)(大)(而)(基)(本)(的)(问)(题)(:第)(一)(,如)(何)(建)(立)(一)(个)(能)(真)(正)(维)(护)(人)(的)(自)(由)(与)(人)(的)(尊)(严)(的)(民)(主)(与)(法)(治)(的)(制)(度)(?〔民)(主)(制)(度)(包)(括)(主)(权)(在)(民)(的)(普)(选)(、议)(会)(政)(治)(、政)(党)(政)(治)([此)(处)(“政)(党)(”二)(字)(当)(然)(是)(指)(“民)(主)(政)(党)(”的)(意)(思)(不)(是)(指)(做)(为)(一)(党)(专)(政)(代)(名)(词)(的)(“革)(命)(政)(党)(”]。法)(治)(是)(指)(宪)(法)(必)(须)(以)(保)(障)(人)(权)(为)(其)(基)(本)(原)(则)(。宪)(法)(之)(下)(政)(府)(中)(立)(法)(权)(、行)(政)(权)(与)(司)(法)(权)(三)(权)(分)(立)(,相)(互)(制)(衡)(;一)(切)(政)(治)(决)(策)(、行)(政)(事)(务)(、立)(法)(事)(务)(与)(司)(法)(事)(务)(均)(必)(须)(在)(正)(当)(法)(律)(程)(序)(之)(内)(进)(行)(。)第)(二)(,如)(何)(对)(中)(国)(文)(化)(传)(统)(进)(行)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”(creativetransformation)。
            建)(立)(民)(主)(和)(法)(治)(的)(制)(度)(
            关)(于)(第)(一)(个)(问)(题)(,必)(须)(指)(出)(的)(是)(,建)(立)(民)(主)(与)(法)(制)(制)(度)(是)(为)(了)(维)(护)(人)(的)(自)(由)(与)(人)(的)(尊)(严)(,并)(不)(是)(为)(民)(主)(而)(民)(主)(;而)(法)(治)(也)(不)(是)(仅)(相)(依)(法)(而)(治)(的)(意)(思)(。易)(言)(之)(,我)(们)(是)(为)(了)(保)(障)(人)(的)(自)(由)(与)(人)(的)(尊)(严)(而)(要)(建)(立)(民)(主)(与)(法)(治)(的)(制)(度)(;民)(主)(是)(保)(障)(人)(的)(自)(由)(与)(人)(的)(尊)(严)(的)(一)(种)(手)(段)(,而)(法)(治)(,如)(果)(它)(是)(以)(基)(本)(人)(权)(为)(其)(基)(础)(的)(话)(,则)(是)(维)(护)(人)(的)(自)(由)(与)(人)(的)(尊)(严)(的)(架)(构)(。
            法)(治)(必)(须)(以)(基)(本)(人)(权)(为)(其)(基)(设)(.宪)(法)(必)(须)(根)(据)(代)(表)(达)(些)(基)(本)(人)(权)(的)(政)(治)(理)(想)(而)(制)(定)(。这)(种)(宪)(法)(对)(政)(府)(的)(权)(力)(一)(定)(要)(加)(以)(限)(制)(,即)(对)(立)(法)(机)(构)(亦)(不)(例)(外)(。法)(治)(有)(时)(被)(误)(解)(;以)(为)(政)(府)(的)(一)(切)(行)(为)(只)(需)(符)(合)(已)(经)(制)(定)(的)(法)(律)(便)(是)(法)(治)(。当)(然)(法)(治)(是)(以)(完)(备)(的)(立)(法)(形)(式)(为)(前)(提)(,但)(此)(尚)(不)(足)(概)(括)(法)(治)(的)(真)(义)(。如)(果)(法)(律)(给)(予)(政)(府)(以)(无)(限)(的)(权)(力)(,允)(许)(其)(为)(所)(欲)(为)(,那)(么)(政)(府)(的)(一)(切)(行)(为)(均)(将)(符)(合)(法)(律)(的)(规)(定)(;但)(,此)(种)(情)(况)(并)(非)(法)(治)(。究)(极)(地)(说)(,法)(治)(必)(须)(使)(一)(切)(法)(律)(合)(乎)(更)(高)(原)(则)(——海)(耶)(克)(教)(授)(所)(谓)(的)(“超)(于)(法)(律)(的)(信)(条)(”(ameta-lega1doctrine),亦)(即)(社)(群)(中)(尊)(重)(基)(本)(人)(权)(<或)(天)(赋)(人)(权)()的)(政)(治)(理)(想)(①。
            基)(本)(人)(权)(是)(法)(治)(的)(基)(础)(。这)(个)(观)(念)(在)(西)(方)(可)(追)(溯)(至)(西)(元)(前)(第)(二)(世)(纪)(斯)(多)(噶)(学)(派)((StoicSchoo1)希)(腊)(哲)(人)(潘)(尼)(谛)(额)(思)((Panaetius)迁)(移)(至)(罗)(马)(对)(该)(学)(派)(进)(行)(改)(进)(之)(时)(。在)(希)(腊)(思)(潮)(中)(,最)(理)(想)(的)(社)(群)(是)(由)(智)(者)(所)(组)(成)(,愚)(夫)(愚)(妇)(是)(没)(有)(资)(格)(参)(加)(的)(。潘)(尼)(谛)(额)(思)(开)(始)(把)(过)(去)(这)(种)(精)(英)(观)(念)(加)(以)(普)(遍)(化)(、人)(道)(化)(,他)(认)(为)(凡)(人)(均)(有)(天)(赋)(的)(理)(性)(,这)(是)(人)(的)(自)(然)(法)(则)(.在)(这)(个)(意)(义)(之)(下)(。人)(是)(生)(而)(乎)(等)(的)(。每)(人)(必)(须)(享)(有)(基)(本)(人)(权)(,否)(则)(人)(的)(尊)(严)(便)(无)(法)(维)(护)(.这)(种)(人)(道)(主)(义)(;后)(来)(经)(过)(西)(赛)(罗)(〔Cicero)的)(发)(挥)(,成)(为)(西)(方)(自)(然)(法)(传)(统)(的)(主)(要)(基)(石)(。对)(西)(赛)(罗)(而)(言)(,上)(帝)(是)(授)(法)(者)(,她)(给)(予)(每)(个)(人)(正)(确)(的)(理)(性)(,人)(的)(理)(性)(是)(永)(恒)(不)(变)(的)(法)(则)(。就)(每)(个)(人)(都)(具)(有)(理)(性)(,都)(对)(”高)(贵)(”与)(“卑)(贱)(”具)(有)(共)(同)(的)(态)(度)(而)(言)(,人)(是)(生)(而)(平)(等)(的)(.因)(此)(每)(个)(人)(部)(应)(受)(到)(基)(本)(的)(尊)(敬)(。十)(七)(世)(纪)(兴)(起)(的)(契)(约)(论)(是)(上)(承)(这)(种)(自)(然)(法)(传)(统)(而)(来)(.至)(十)(八)(世)(纪)(,康)(德)(的)(道)(德)(自)(主)(理)(论)(遂)(集)(此)(一)(传)(统)(之)(大)(成)(。对)(康)(德)(而)(言)(,人)(是)(价)(值)(的)(来)(源)(,任)(何)(人)(本)(身)(就)(是)(一)(个)(目)(的)(,不)(可)(化)(约)(为)(别)(人)(的)(手)(段)(。社)(群)(是)(“诸)(目)(的)(组)(成)(的)(王)(国)(”〔KingdomofEnds),因)(此)(,社)(群)(中)(的)(人)(际)(关)(系)(是)(不)(可)(化)(约)(的)(道)(德)(关)(系)(。
            以)(自)(然)(法)(与)(契)(约)(论)(为)(基)(础)(的)(西)(方)(基)(本)(人)(权)(论)(虽)(然)(历)(经)(怀)(疑)(与)(批)(评)((可)(以)(休)(谟)(为)(代)(表)(),但)(历)(久)(而)(常)(新)(,当)(代)(维)(护)(此)(一)(传)(统)(有)(力)(的)(哲)(学)(巨)(著)(之)(一)(是)(:一)(九)(七)(一)(年)(出)(版)(的)(劳)(尔)(思)((JoknRawls)教)(授)(所)(撰)(《公)(正)(的)(理)(论)(》(《ATheoryofJustice》)。
            西)(方)(基)(本)(人)(权)(或)(天)(赋)(人)(权)(的)(理)(论)(当)(然)(不)(是)(两)(三)(句)(话)(可)(以)(交)(代)(清)(楚)(的)(。但)(我)(希)(望)(借)(上)(述)(极)(为)(简)(略)(的)(叙)(述)(说)(明)(一)(点)(:今)(天)(我)(们)(所)(需)(要)(的)(法)(治)(必)(须)(以)(基)(本)(人)(权)(为)(其)(基)(设)(,而)(拥)(护)(基)(本)(人)(权)(的)(思)(想)(正)(不)(必)(完)(全)(取)(自)(西)(方)(哲)(学)(的)(传)(统)(。笔)(者)(在)(用)(英)(文)(发)(表)(的)(《孔)(子)(以)(前)(“仁)(”字)(意)(义)(的)(演)(变)(与)(儒)(家)(道)(德)(自)(主)(观)(念)(的)(形)(成)(》②一)(文)(中)(曾)(指)(出)(,从)(古)(典)(儒)(家)(哲)(学)(的)(结)(构)(的)(观)(点)(来)(看)(,“仁)(”是)(优)(先)(于)(“礼)(”;因)(此)(,“仁)(”的)(精)(义)(与)(传)(统)(的)(“礼)(”的)(内)(容)(在)(理)(论)(上)(是)(可)(以)(分)(离)(的)(。职)(是)(之)(故)(,我)(们)(不)(一)(定)(非)(要)(用)(西)(方)(理)(论)(为)(我)(们)(所)(需)(之)(基)(本)(人)(权)(做)(辩)(解)(,孔)(孟)(的)(“仁)(”的)(哲)(学)(正)(可)(做)(为)(基)(本)(人)(权)(的)(理)(论)(基)(础)(。“仁)(”的)(哲)(学)(的)(最)(基)(本)(原)(则)(是)(肯)(定)(人)(的)(道)(德)(资)(质)(是)(与)(生)(俱)(来)(的)(;而)(用)(内)(省)(的)(工)(夫)(,吾)(人)(深)(知)(自)(已)(具)(有)(道)(德)(资)(质)(。这)(种)(道)(德)(资)(质)(是)(天)(生)(的)(、永)(恒)(不)(变)(的)(,不)(是)(社)(会)(演)(变)(、后)(天)(教)(育)(或)(法)(律)(约)(束)(的)(结)(果)(。就)(每)(个)(人)(都)(有)(天)(生)(的)(道)(德)(资)(质)(、都)(有)(发)(展)(道)(德)(资)(质)(的)(意)(愿)(而)(言)(;人)(是)(生)(而)(平)(等)(的)(,所)(以)(每)(个)(人)(的)(身)(体)(、精)(神)(、与)(意)(愿)(都)(应)(受)(到)(基)(本)(的)(尊)(敬)(。基)(本)(人)(权)(的)(肯)(定)(是)(尊)(敬)(人)(并)(给)(予)(他)(发)(展)(机)(会)(的)(条)(件)(。人)(生)(的)(目)(的)(是)(完)(成)(道)(德)(的)(自)(我)(,在)(社)(群)(中)(个)(人)(本)(身)(就)(是)(终)(极)(目)(的)(,他)(不)(可)(化)(约)(为)(其)(他)(任)(何)(人)(的)(工)(具)(。
            在)(国)(史)(之)(中)(,天)(赋)(人)(权)(的)(观)(念)(并)(未)(自)(儒)(家)(传)(统)(中)(产)(生)(,但)(这)(是)(历)(史)(演)(变)(的)(结)(果)(,并)(非)(逻)(辑)(的)(必)(然)(。“仁)(”的)(哲)(学)(与)(自)(然)(法)(学)(说)(或)(契)(约)(论)(无)(论)(就)(基)(本)(内)(容)(或)(历)(史)(发)(展)(来)(说)(,均)(有)(很)(大)(的)(不)(同)(.但)(自)(然)(法)(学)(说)(与)(契)(约)(论)(所)(支)(持)(的)(天)(赋)(人)(权)(说)(,这)(一)(点)(却)(同)(样)(地)(可)(由)(“仁)(”的)(观)(念)(来)(支)(持)(.我)(们)(现)(在)(在)(思)(想)(上)(,正)(可)(进)(行)(具)(有)(充)(分)(理)(由)(的)(与)(合)(乎)(理)(则)(的)(创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”,使)(过)(去)(的)(原)(则)(变)(成)(现)(代)(化)(的)(种)(子)(。如)(果)(我)(们)(认)(为)(做)(一)(个)(中)(国)(人)(并)(不)(是)(羞)(耻)(的)(事)(,如)(果)(我)(们)(认)(为)(我)(们)(现)(在)(的)(思)(想)(与)(精)(神)(和)(我)(们)(的)(传)(统)(有)(正)(面)(的)(密)(切)(关)(系)(,那)(么)(我)(们)(要)(以)(在)(我)(们)(思)(想)(与)(精)(神)(中)(认)(同)(的)(,文)(化)(传)(统)(中)(正)(面)(成)(分)(为)(荣)(。如)(果)(这)(些)(正)(面)(文)(化)(传)(统)(成)(分)(中)(包)(括)(“仁)(”的)(观)(念)(;那)(么)(,做)(为)(一)(个)(现)(代)(的)(中)(国)(人)(最)(大)(的)(责)(任)(与)(荣)(耀)(之)(一)(,便)(是)(要)(为)(建)(立)(保)(障)(基)(本)(人)(权)(的)(法)(治)(制)(度)(而)(奋)(斗)(。
            谈)(到)(民)(主)(,我)(们)(首)(先)(必)(须)(认)(清)(的)(是)(,它)(与)(自)(由)(不)(可)(对)(等)(看)(待)(,民)(主)(不)(是)(目)(的)(,它)(只)(是)(一)(种)(手)(段)(,一)(种)(方)(法)(。民)(主)(政)(制)(是)(人)(类)(历)(史)(演)(变)(出)(来)(的)(有)(害)(程)(度)(最)(少)(之)(社)(会)(结)(构)(中)(的)(安)(排)(。既)(然)(说)(它)(有)(害)(程)(度)(最)(少)(,当)(然)(不)(是)(没)(有)(害)(处)((下)(文)(将)(谈)(到)(把)(民)(主)(绝)(对)(化)(以)(后)(所)(产)(生)(的)(一)(种)(害)(处)(),只)(是)(说)(与)(其)(他)(害)(处)(更)(多)(的)(政)(制)(相)(比)(,民)(主)(政)(制)(害)(处)(比)(较)(少)(而)(已)(。世)(间)(不)(可)(能)(变)(成)(天)(国)(.有)(心)(人)(只)(得)(容)(忍)(这)(种)(不)(够)(理)(想)(的)(境)(况)(。因)(为)(民)(主)(只)(是)(一)(种)(手)(段)(,所)(以)(在)(实)(际)(运)(作)(上)(,我)(们)(需)(要)(随)(时)(谋)(求)(它)(的)(实)(质)(改)(进)(,以)(便)(使)(它)(成)(为)(更)(有)(效)(的)(手)(段)(。如)(果)(把)(民)(主)(当)(做)(目)(的)(,种)(种)(弊)(端)(皆)(可)(发)(生)(。
            民)(主)(既)(然)(是)(一)(种)(手)(段)(,一)(种)(方)(法)(,那)(么)(它)(是)(达)(成)(甚)(么)(目)(标)(的)(手)(段)(或)(方)(法)(呢)(?这)(可)(分)(三)(点)(来)(说)(。第)(一)(,民)(主)(政)(制)(是)(人)(类)(所)(发)(现)(的)(唯)(一)(和)(平)(变)(革)(的)(方)(法)(。当)(对)(于)(同)(一)(问)(题)(有)(几)(个)(互)(相)(冲)(突)(的)(意)(见)(发)(生)(之)(时)(,民)(主)(取)(决)(于)(多)(数)(表)(决)(的)(过)(程)(远)(较)(用)(武)(力)(强)(制)(执)(行)(某)(一)(意)(见)(,为)(人)(道)(而)(且)(较)(少)(浪)(费)(。第)(二)(,民)(主)(政)(制)(与)(其)(他)(政)(制)(相)(比)(较)(能)(保)(障)(人)(的)(自)(由)(与)(人)(的)(尊)(严)(。少)(数)(人)(或)(独)(裁)(者)(压)(迫)(多)(数)(人)(,绝)(不)(是)(多)(数)(人)(所)(愿)(意)(的)(亦)(与)(多)(数)(人)(自)(身)(利)(益)(不)(合)(。如)(能)(实)(行)(真)(正)(的)(民)(主)(,这)(种)(压)(迫)(使)(不)(能)(发)(生)(。但)(保)(障)(少)(数)(人)(使)(他)(们)(不)(受)(多)(数)(人)(的)(决)(定)(或)(集)(体)(行)(动)(之)(干)(扰)(与)(压)(迫)(,则)(是)(另)(一)(问)(题)(。在)(民)(主)(制)(度)(之)(内)(如)(何)(服)(从)(多)(数)(、尊)(重)(少)(数)(有)(赖)(参)(与)(民)(主)(政)(治)(人)(士)(的)(道)(德)(与)(政)(治)(的)(修)(养)(,民)(主)(制)(度)(之)(存)(在)(并)(不)(能)(自)(动)(化)(解)(此)(一)(问)(题)(。第)(三)(民)(主)(政)(制)(之)(运)(作)(,可)(使)(大)(家)(对)(公)(共)(事)(务)(产)(生)(参)(与)(感)(,产)(生)(比)(较)(能)(被)(大)(家)(接)(受)(的)(共)(同)(认)(识)(。从)(长)(远)(的)(观)(点)(来)(看)(,能)(比)(较)(有)(效)(地)(达)(成)(社)(会)(的)(团)(结)(。对)(目)(前)(台)(湾)(而)(言)(,这)(一)(点)(可)(能)(是)(最)(重)(要)(的)(一)(项)(功)(效)(。在)(外)(交)(屡)(受)(挫)(折)(的)(今)(天)(,台)(湾)(今)(日)(所)(最)(需)(要)(的)(是)(大)(家)(一)(心)(—德)(的)(内)(部)(团)(结)(。如)(果)(能)(产)(生)(这)(种)(真)(正)(的)(、不)(是)(形)(式)(的)(团)(结)(,将)(来)(外)(交)(、军)(事)(与)(经)(济)(所)(可)(能)(发)(生)(的)(困)(扰)(,当)(可)(抵)(挡)(得)(住)(。现)(在)(形)(式)(上)(似)(是)(繁)(荣)(安)(定)(,其)(实)(仍)(有)(暗)(流)(,而)(且)(海)(岛)(经)(济)(依)(赖)(外)(来)(因)(素)(甚)(多)(,如)(果)(有)(任)(何)(波)(动)(,现)(在)(这)(种)(形)(式)(的)(“团)(结)(”是)(否)(能)(禁)(得)(起)(真)(正)(的)(考)(验)(是)(很)(难)(说)(的)(。如)(果)(执)(政)(者)(真)(能)(把)(眼)(光)(看)(远)(一)(点)(,那)(么)(就)(必)(须)(推)(行)(民)(主)(,如)(要)(推)(行)(民)(主)(,则)(首)(先)(必)(须)(尽)(快)(恢)(复)(中)(央)(民)(意)(代)(表)(增)(额)(选)(举)(。其)(实)(恢)(复)(选)(举)(对)(执)(政)(党)(也)(有)(好)(处)(,执)(政)(党)(必)(须)(增)(加)(新)(血)(轮)(,以)(求)(赢)(得)(选)(民)(的)(支)(持)(,这)(是)(促)(使)(党)(内)(自)(新)(的)(有)(效)(方)(法)(。
            在)(多)(数)(人)(要)(求)(实)(行)(民)(主)(的)(今)(天)(,我)(们)(除)(了)(要)(认)(清)(民)(主)(政)(制)(所)(能)(产)(生)(有)(益)(的)(功)(效)(以)(外)(,我)(们)(也)(要)(特)(别)(注)(意)(它)(所)(能)(带)(来)(的)(弊)(端)(,庶)(几)(可)(未)(雨)(绸)(缪)(,尽)(量)(吸)(取)(它)(的)(好)(处)(,减)(少)(它)(的)(坏)(处)(。在)(此)(我)(只)(拟)(先)(提)(出)(一)(点)(讨)(论)(。我)(们)(都)(知)(道)(美)(国)(是)(一)(个)(很)(民)(主)(的)(国)(家)(,但)(很)(多)(美)(国)(人)(民)(虽)(然)(享)(有)(很)(多)(的)(自)(由)(,却)(并)(不)(很)(珍)(惜)(自)(由)(,思)(想)(意)(见)(也)(不)(很)(独)(立)(,往)(往)(是)(人)(云)(亦)(云)(,跟)(着)(时)(尚)(跑)(。然)(而)(,民)(主)(国)(家)(的)(公)(民)(需)(要)(独)(立)(判)(断)(力)(,无)(论)(他)(们)(参)(加)(竞)(选)(、投)(票)(或)(其)(他)(种)(种)(形)(式)(的)(政)(治)(参)(与)(,这)(一)(切)(都)(应)(以)(个)(人)(的)(独)(立)(判)(断)(力)(为)(基)(础)(才)(有)(意)(义)(。而)(且)(在)(法)(治)(与)(平)(等)(的)(政)(治)(环)(境)(中)(,他)(们)(的)(独)(立)(判)(断)(力)(,应)(该)(既)(获)(得)(培)(养)(又)(受)(到)(保)(障)(,因)(此)(社)(会)(愈)(民)(主)(,人)(民)(众)(需)(要)(、愈)(应)(有)(、愈)(实)(有)(独)(立)(判)(断)(力)(才)(对)(。为)(甚)(么)(在)(彻)(底)(推)(行)(民)(主)(的)(的)(社)(会)(里)(,反)(而)(产)(生)(个)(人)(独)(立)(判)(断)(力)(趋)(于)(萎)(缩)(以)(至)(趋)(附)(时)(尚)(的)(“奇)(怪)(”的)(现)(象)(呢)(?达)(种)(现)(象)(的)(产)(生)(,除)(了)(由)(于)(深)(受)(社)(会)(与)(文)(化)(商)(业)(化)(的)(影)(响)(以)(外)(,从)(思)(想)(的)(观)(点)(看)(,它)(是)(微)(妙)(地)(与)(民)(主)(绝)(对)(化)((把)(民)(主)(当)(作)(目)(的)()有)(关)(。在)(民)(主)(绝)(对)(化)(的)(社)(会)(中)(独)(立)(判)(断)(力)(萎)(缩)(的)(现)(象)(,更)(进)(一)(步)(地)(说)(明)(了)(:民)(主)(与)(自)(由)(虽)(然)(在)(运)(作)(上)(彼)(此)(甚)(为)(相)(关)(,它)(们)(实)(在)(是)(两)(件)(事)(。民)(主)(是)(维)(护)(自)(由)(的)(制)(度)(.有)(了)(这)(种)(制)(度)(是)(否)(人)(民)(就)(珍)(惜)(个)(人)(的)(自)(由)(.却)(是)(另)(一)(问)(题)(;人)(对)(个)(人)(自)(由)(之)(珍)(惜)(.要)(靠)(文)(比)(、思)(想)(、教)(育)(、经)(济)(等)(其)(他)(因)(素)(有)(效)(地)(配)(合)(才)(成)(.
            一)(个)(真)(正)(实)(行)(民)(主)(的)(社)(会)(,独)(立)(判)(断)(力)(与)(言)(论)(自)(由)(的)(确)(受)(到)(了)(保)(障)(,但)(我)(们)(这)(里)(所)(谈)(的)(,不)(是)(它)(们)(是)(否)(受)(到)(保)(障)(,而)(是)(它)(们)(在)(实)(质)(上)(是)(否)(茁)(壮)(或)(萎)(缩)(的)(问)(题)(。一)(个)(民)(主)(绝)(对)(化)(的)(社)(会)(,一)(般)(人)(自)(然)(处)(处)(要)(求)(平)(等)(,其)(么)(事)(都)(要)(由)(自)(己)(来)(决)(定)(。并)(且)(相)(信)(自)(己)(有)(能)(力)(做)(各)(种)(决)(定)(,否)(则)(就)(不)(民)(主)(.不)(平)(等)(。因)(此)(,各)(式)(各)(样)(从)(传)(统)(演)(变)(而)(来)(的)(权)(威)(都)(相)(对)(地)(遭)(受)(削)(减)(:父)(母)(、师)(长)(、学)(校)(、经)(典)(.教)(会)(,甚)(至)(语)(言)(规)(律)(都)(不)(再)(被)(信)(服)(,也)(不)(再)(被)(依)(靠)(。一)(切)(由)(自)(己)(选)(择)(,自)(己)(决)(定)(,自)(己)(负)(责)(。但)(“自)(己)(”是)(什)(么)(呢)(?自)(己)(根)(据)(什)(么)(做)(选)(择)(、做)(决)(定)(呢)(?当)(各)(式)(各)(样)(的)(权)(威)(发)(生)(危)(机)(、渐)(趋)(解)(体)(之)(时)(,自)(己)(所)(赖)(以)(做)(选)(择)(、做)(决)(定)(的)(资)(源)(也)(就)(同)(时)(减)(少)(了)(。一)(般)(人)(的)(创)(造)(力)(极)(为)(有)(限)(,而)(真)(正)(的)(创)(造)(却)(需)(依)(靠)(传)(统)(的)(架)(构)(进)(行)(。在)(这)(种)(故)(意)(不)(需)(要)(权)(威)(、不)(需)(要)(传)(统)(的)(意)(况)(中)(,心)(灵)(变)(成)(了)(真)(空)(,遂)(被)(流)(行)(的)(时)(尚)(所)(侵)(占)(而)(不)(自)(知)(。尤)(其)(在)(美)(国)(这)(样)(高)(度)(商)(业)(化)(的)(国)(家)(,广)(告)(充)(斥)(每)(一)(角)(落)((政)(治)(竞)(选)(也)(要)(靠)(广)(告)(术)(才)(行)(),在)(各)(式)(传)(统)(权)(威)(失)(去)(权)(威)(性)(以)(后)(,个)(人)(做)(选)(择)(、做)(决)(定)(的)(根)(据)(便)(是)(当)(时)(流)(行)(的)(时)(尚)(了)(。个)(人)(独)(立)(判)(断)(力)(因)(此)(而)(萎)(缩)(了)(。
            根)(据)(以)(上)(的)(分)(析)(,我)(们)(知)(道)(,民)(主)(与)(自)(由)(在)(实)(际)(运)(作)(上)(有)(许)(多)(彼)(此)(相)(斥)(与)(相)(成)(的)(“紧)(张)(”(tension)关)(系)(。在)(社)(会)(上)(如)(何)(发)(挥)(民)(主)(政)(治)(的)(优)(点)(,减)(少)(随)(之)(而)(来)(的)(弊)(端)(,如)(前)(所)(述)(,是)(要)(靠)(文)(化)(、思)(想)(、教)(育)(、经)(济)(的)(发)(展)(而)(定)(。由)(此)(可)(见)(,发)(展)(充)(沛)(有)(力)(的)(文)(化)(与)(思)(想)(,改)(进)(教)(育)(制)(度)(使)(经)(济)(发)(展)(与)(分)(配)(更)(有)(效)(、更)(合)(理)(,是)(配)(合)(民)(主)(与)(法)(治)(之)(建)(立)(不)(可)(或)(缺)(的)(重)(要)(条)(件)(。
            推)(行)(文)(化)(传)(统)(创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(
            文)(化)(传)(统)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”这)(个)(目)(标)(,是)(我)(在)(一)(九)(七)(二)(年)(于)(《五)(四)(时)(代)(的)(激)(烈)(反)(传)(统)(思)(想)(与)(中)(国)(自)(由)(主)(义)(的)(前)(途)(》一)(篇)(英)(文)(论)(文)(中)(提)(出)(来)(的)(。(其)(实)(,最)(初)(是)(在)(一)(九)(七)(一)(年)(,在)(为)(纪)(念)(先)(师)(殷)(海)(光)(先)(生)(而)(写)(的)(《殷)(海)(光)(先)(生)(一)(生)(奋)(斗)(的)(永)(恒)(意)(义)(》一)(文)(中)(的)(注)(释)(里)(提)(出)(的)(。)后)(来)(,我)(在)(一)(九)(七)(五)(年)(返)(台)(大)(讲)(演)(时)(,乘)(机)(与)(几)(位)(青)(年)(朋)(友)(合)(作)(,把)(它)(译)(成)(了)(中)(文)(。creativetransfomation这)(两)(个)(英)(文)(字)(可)(直)(译)(为)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”;可)(是)(,当)(初)(根)(据)(种)(种)(思)(虑)(,曾)(译)(为)(“创)(造)(性)(的)(改)(进)(”。现)(在)(看)(来)(,还)(是)(直)(译)(为)(“例)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”比)(较)(恰)(当)(。
            这)(几)(年)(,偶)(尔)(看)(到)(国)(内)(有)(人)(引)(用)(,在)(一)(份)(有)(关)(“文)(化)(复)(兴)(”半)(官)(式)(文)(告)(中)(也)(曾)(出)(现)((事)(实)(上)(,我)(所)(说)(的)(“创)(造)(性)(的)(改)(进)(”或)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”必)(须)(与)(“文)(化)(复)(兴)(”之)(所)(指)(,做)(一)(严)(格)(的)(区)(分)(),这)(几)(个)(字)(大)(有)(变)(成)(口)(号)(的)(危)(险)(了)(。但)(,究)(竞)(甚)(么)(是)(文)(化)(传)(统)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”呢)(?那)(是)(把)(一)(些)(中)(国)(文)(化)(传)(统)(中)(的)(符)(号)(与)(价)(值)(系)(统)(加)(以)(改)(造)(,使)(经)(过)(改)(造)(的)(符)(号)(与)(价)(值)(系)(统)(变)(成)(有)(利)(于)(变)(迁)(的)(种)(子)(,同)(时)(在)(变)(迁)(的)(过)(程)(中)(继)(续)(保)(持)(文)(化)(的)(认)(同)(。这)(是)(无)(比)(艰)(苦)(而)(长)(远)(的)(工)(作)(,不)(是)(任)(何)(一)(个)(人)(、一)(群)(人)(或)(一)(个)(时)(代)(的)(人)(所)(能)(达)(成)(的)(。持)(续)(几)(千)(年)(的)(中)(国)(传)(统)(文)(化)(秩)(序)(大)(解)(体)(以)(后)(,在)(几)(十)(年)(之)(内)(我)(们)(在)(这)(方)(面)(没)(有)(很)(大)(的)(成)(就)(,原)(不)(足)(为)(奇)(。所)(可)(惜)(的)(是)(自)(五)(四)(以)(来)(,因)(为)(知)(识)(界)(的)(领)(袖)(人)(物)(,“多)(会)(呼)(叫)(,少)(能)(思)(想)(”⑦,他)(们)(学)(养)(与)(思)(想)(的)(根)(基)(太)(单)(薄)(,再)(加)(上)(左)(右)(政)(治)(势)(力)(的)(分)(化)(与)(牵)(制)(,所)(以)(“中)(国)(的)(学)(术)(文)(化)(思)(想)(总)(是)(在)(复)(古)(、反)(古)(、西)(化)(、反)(西)(化)(或)(拼)(盘)(式)(的)(折)(衷)(这)(一)(泥)(沼)(里)(打)(滚)(,展)(不)(开)(新)(的)(视)(野)(,拓)(不)(出)(新)(的)(境)(界)(”,到)(现)(在)(还)(有)(人)(歇)(斯)(底)(里)(地)(喊)(“全)(盘)(西)(化)(”那)(种)(滥)(调)(:所)(以)(连)(这)(个)(紧)(要)(的)(文)(化)(内)(新)(基)(本)(取)(向)(至)(今)(尚)(未)(确)(实)(他)(建)(立)(起)(来)(。今)(后)(有)(志)(之)(士)(,必)(须)(抖)(落)(一)(切)(渣)(滓)(,超)(脱)(世)(俗)(,拿)(出)(“比)(慢)(”的)(精)(神)(,真)(正)(脚)(踏)(实)(地)(朝)(着)(这)(个)(目)(标)(努)(力)(,庶)(几)(有)(趋)(近)(这)(个)(目)(标)(的)(希)(望)(。至)(于)(究)(竟)(应)(做)(那)(些)(具)(体)(的)(努)(力)(呢)(?我)(在)(别)(处)(曾)(提)(到)(过)(,对)(文)(化)(传)(统)(进)(行)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”,首)(先)(要)(具)(有)(对)(中)(国)(文)(化)(传)(统)(与)(西)(洋)(文)(化)(传)(统)(真)(正)(实)(质)(的)(了)(解)(,也)(就)(是)(对)(这)(两)(个)(文)(化)(传)(统)(的)(来)(龙)(去)(脉)(要)(有)(深)(切)(的)(历)(史)(认)(识)(.同)(时)(对)(中)(西)(经)(典)(著)(作)(要)(有)(敏)(锐)(精)(微)(的)(了)(解)(。关)(于)(对)(中)(国)(经)(典)(与)(历)(史)(的)(了)(解)(所)(应)(采)(取)(的)(方)(法)(与)(态)(度)(,因)(涉)(及)(许)(多)(艰)(难)(与)(繁)(复)(的)(问)(题)(,在)(本)(文)(之)(中)(无)(法)(详)(论)(。近)(几)(年)(来)(,笔)(者)(一)(直)(希)(望)(能)(写)(成)(题)(目)(暂)(定)(为)(《对)(于)(中)(国)(人)(文)(教)(育)(的)(沉)(思)(》一)(文)(,希)(望)(能)(够)(比)(较)(有)(系)(统)(地)(讨)(论)(这)(一)(问)(题)(,此)(文)(至)(今)(尚)(未)(写)(成)(;不)(过)(,一)(部)(分)(意)(见)(已)(在)(《中)(国)(人)(文)(的)(重)(建)(》中)(表)(明)(。
            为)(了)(对)(西)(方)(历)(史)(与)(西)(方)(典)(籍)(谋)(求)(精)(深)(的)(了)(解)(,我)(们)(需)(要)(有)(计)(划)(地)(与)(严)(谨)(地)(移)(译)(西)(方)(史)(学)(、哲)(学)(、文)(学)(、艺)(术)(,社)(会)(科)(学)(各)(类)(的)(典)(籍)(。这)(是)(一)(件)(非)(常)(艰)(苦)(伟)(大)(的)(事)(业)(,在)(我)(国)(历)(史)(上)(,唐)(朝)(的)(玄)(奘)(可)(说)(是)(从)(事)(这)(种)(努)(力)(的)(典)(型)(。这)(桩)(事)(必)(须)(靠)(政)(府)(机)(构)(与)(民)(间)(团)(体)(拿)(出)(真)(正)(魄)(力)(,筹)(备)(大)(量)(资)(金)(,订)(定)(长)(远)(计)(划)(,礼)(聘)(专)(人)(推)(动)(才)(行)(。另)(外)(,我)(们)(要)(提)(高)(人)(文)(学)(科)(与)(社)(会)(科)(学)(研)(究)(人)(员)(的)(理)(论)(基)(础)(。这)(主)(要)(包)(括)(两)(点)(:(一)()提)(高)(思)(想)(精)(密)(的)(程)(度)(与)(敏)(锐)(分)(析)(的)(能)(力)(;(二)()增)(加)(思)(想)(的)(内)(容)(使)(更)(之)(丰)(富)(、更)(开)(阔)(。对)(中)(国)(文)(化)(传)(统)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”,这)(份)(严)(肃)(而)(任)(重)(道)(远)(的)(工)(作)(不)(是)(舞)(文)(弄)(墨)(、沾)(沾)(自)(喜)(的)(才)(子)(所)(能)(做)(的)(,也)(不)(是)(某)(些)(浮)(说)(游)(词)(、语)(无)(伦)(次)(的)(“海)(外)(学)(人)(”所)(能)(做)(的)(;至)(于)(逢)(迎)(权)(贵)(、出)(卖)(灵)(魂)(的)(学)(术)(政)(客)(,他)(们)(更)(是)(我)(们)(文)(化)(界)(病)(态)(的)(标)(本)(,除)(了)(能)(够)(做)(为)(医)(家)(研)(究)(的)(对)(象)(以)(外)(,此)(处)(不)(忍)(多)(加)(讨)(论)(。
            从)(事)(文)(化)(传)(统)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”所)(切)(忌)(的)(是)(:无)(谓)(的)(论)(争)(。所)(谓)(“真)(理)(愈)(辩)(愈)(朋)(”,那)(只)(是)(自)(由)(主)(义)(形)(式)(上)(的)(原)(则)(,在)(经)(验)(世)(界)(里)(却)(不)(一)(定)(正)(确)(。以)(中)(国)(而)(言)(,则)(非)(常)(不)(正)(确)(。如)(随)(便)(应)(用)(,反)(易)(变)(成)(天)(真)(自)(由)(主)(义)(者)(的)(教)(条)(。我)(们)(考)(察)(五)(四)(以)(来)(大)(大)(小)(小)(的)(论)(争)(,很)(清)(楚)(地)(知)(道)(;真)(理)(在)(中)(国)(是)(愈)(辩)(愈)(乱)(。中)(国)(知)(识)(分)(子)(、因)(为)(大)(多)(学)(识)(与)(思)(想)(根)(基)(太)(单)(薄)(,再)(加)(上)(深)(受)(传)(统)(一)(元)(论)(思)(想)(模)(式)(的)(影)(响)(,所)(以)(,在)(思)(想)(层)(面)((有)(人)(借)(辩)(论)(做)(政)(治)(斗)(争)(或)(去)(陷)(害)(别)(人)(,那)(是)(政)(治)(与)(道)(德)(的)(问)(题)(,不)(是)(思)(想)(问)(题)(,在)(本)(文)(脉)(络)(中)(,不)(值)(讨)(论)(),一)(开)(始)(就)(把)(事)(情)(看)(得)(太)(浅)(、太)(简)(单)((否)(则)(也)(不)(会)(动)(辄)(就)(与)(人)(争)(论)(起)(来)();正)(因)(为)(把)(事)(情)(看)(得)(太)(浅)(、太)(简)(单)(,所)(以)(思)(路)(从)(来)(“不)(会)(”堵)(塞)(,根)(据)(几)(个)(口)(号)(愈)(想)(愈)(通)(畅)(,文)(思)(敏)(捷)(,倚)(马)(可)(待)(,手)(握)(笔)(杆)(在)(稿)(纸)(上)(兜)(了)(几)(个)(圈)(子)(,以)(为)(打)(了)(胜)(仗)(。其)(实)(这)(种)(行)(为)(在)(心)(理)(上)(是)(自)(渎)(,在)(思)(想)(上)(则)(是)(陷)(入)(形)(式)(主)(义)(的)(谬)(误)(而)(不)(自)(知)(.形)(式)(主)(义)(有)(两)(义)(;第)(一)(,它)(指)(称)(只)(做)(表)(面)(工)(夫)(的)(行)(为)(或)(只)(看)(到)(表)(面)(的)(思)(想)(;第)(二)(,“形)(式)(”二)(字)(在)(此)(处)(相)(当)(于)(形)(式)(逻)(辑)(中)(所)(谓)(“形)(式)(”的)(意)(义)(。形)(式)(主)(义)(于)(是)(指)(调)(一)(种)(根)(锯)(末)(对)(实)(质)(问)(题)(仔)(细)(考)(察)(而)(武)(断)(采)(用)(的)(前)(提)(、机)(械)(地)(演)(绎)(的)(过)(程)(。这)(种)(思)(想)(过)(程)(是)(一)(种)(对)(于)(人)(间)(问)(题)(之)(形)(式)(建)(构)(的)(过)(程)(。犯)(了)(形)(式)(主)(义)(谬)(误)(的)(人)(,却)(不)(自)(觉)(地)(以)(为)(他)(根)(据)(形)(式)(建)(构)(所)(得)(到)(的)(了)(解)(是)(实)(质)(的)(了)(解)(。形)(式)(主)(义)(只)(是)(头)(脑)(中)(演)(绎)(逻)(辑)(的)(建)(树)(,但)(形)(式)(主)(义)(者)(却)(以)(为)(这)(种)(头)(脑)(中)(的)(建)(构)(实)(有)(所)(指)(。形)(式)(主)(义)(的)(第)(一)(义)(与)(第)(二)(义)(,从)(分)(所)(的)(观)(点)(来)(看)(,是)(可)(以)(分)(开)(的)(;但)(,在)(实)(际)(运)(作)(上)(,两)(者)(常)(常)(密)(不)(可)(分)(:一)(个)(只)(看)(到)(问)(题)(表)(面)(的)(人)(常)(会)(根)(据)(对)(问)(题)(表)(面)(的)(了)(解)(进)(行)(机)(械)(式)(的)(演)(绎)(。因)(此)(形)(式)(主)(义)(者)(无)(可)(避)(免)(地)(把)(具)(体)(事)(实)(简)(单)(化)(或)(扭)(曲)(化)(了)(.
            在)(传)(统)(文)(化)(秩)(序)(已)(经)(解)(体)(,新)(的)(文)(化)(秩)(序)(尚)(未)(建)(立)(的)(境)(况)(之)(中)(,建)(设)(性)(的)(辩)(论)(所)(必)(须)(具)(有)(的)(约)(定)(俗)(成)(的)(批)(评)(标)(准)(根)(本)(尚)(未)(建)(立)(,再)(加)(上)(中)(国)(知)(识)(分)(子)(常)(有)(泛)(道)(德)(主)(义)(的)(倾)(向)(,很)(容)(易)(怀)(疑)(对)(方)(的)(诚)(意)(,因)(此)(,文)(字)(论)(争)(常)(变)(成)(风)(声)(鹤)(映)(、草)(木)(皆)(兵)(的)(神)(经)(战)(,在)(一)(种)(迫)(害)(狂)(的)(心)(情)(之)(下)(所)(做)(的)(说)(辞)(,也)(只)(能)(是)(梦)(呓)(了)(。前)(几)(年)(在)(台)(湾)(发)(生)(的)(乡)(土)(文)(学)(论)(争)(,并)(未)(超)(出)(五)(四)(以)(来)(论)(争)(的)(范)(畴)(,读)(来)(令)(人)(昏)(昏)(欲)(唾)(。我)(当)(时)(最)(担)(心)(的)(不)(是)(哪)(边)(占)(了)(上)(风)(,却)(是)(我)(所)(敬)(佩)(的)(少)(数)(乡)(土)(作)(家)(的)(心)(情)(。文)(学)(创)(造)(需)(要)(许)(多)(繁)(复)(的)(条)(件)(相)(互)(配)(合)(;但)(最)(大)(的)(泉)(源)(是)(具)(体)(而)(特)(殊)(的)(感)(受)(——从)(具)(体)(而)(特)(殊)(的)(感)(受)(中)(探)(寻)(什)(么)(是)(基)(本)(的)(、不)(变)(的)(或)(完)(美)(的)(。真)(正)(有)(创)(造)(力)(的)(作)(家)(是)(受)(这)(种)(具)(体)(而)(特)(殊)(的)(感)(受)(之)(驱)(使)(而)(从)(事)(创)(作)(的)(。台)(湾)(乡)(土)(文)(学)(的)(出)(现)(,以)(其)(中)(员)(精)(采)(的)(作)(品)(而)(言)(,是)(近)(年)(来)(台)(湾)(文)(化)(界)(最)(令)(人)(兴)(奋)(的)(事)(之)(一)(。一)(些)(具)(有)(创)(造)(力)(、找)(到)(了)(自)(我)(、找)(到)(了)(自)(己)(的)(根)(的)(作)(家)(,居)(然)(出)(现)(了)(。台)(湾)(不)(可)(再)(讥)(为)(“文)(化)(沙)(漠)(”了)(。但)(他)(们)(具)(体)(而)(特)(殊)(的)(感)(受)(,绝)(不)(是)(任)(何)(普)(遍)(的)(公)(式)(所)(可)(套)(上)(去)(的)(。易)(言)(之)(,加)(用)(公)(式)(去)(套)(,具)(体)(而)(特)(殊)(的)(感)(受)(之)(真)(实)(性)(与)(丰)(富)(性)(自)(然)(简)(单)(化)(、形)(式)(化)(了)(。创)(造)(的)(泉)(源)(也)(就)(自)(然)(干)(涸)(了)(。任)(何)(人)(都)(不)(免)(受)(环)(境)(纳)(影)(响)(.而)(中)(国)(的)(作)(家)(最)(常)(遭)(遇)(的)(内)(在)(困)(扰)(是)(创)(作)(生)(命)(的)(后)(继)(无)(力)(。主)(张)(乡)(土)(文)(学)(的)(论)(客)(,表)(面)(上)(是)(声)(援)(与)(赞)(扬)(那)(些)(认)(真)(创)(作)(的)(乡)(土)(作)(家)(的)(工)(作)(,实)(际)(上)(却)(给)(他)(们)(造)(成)(了)(许)(多)(心)(理)(的)(压)(力)(。不)(过)(,对)(于)(少)(数)(资)(源)(丰)(厚)(的)(作)(家)(,一)(时)(的)(压)(力)(,我)(希)(望)(不)(致)(于)(压)(缩)(他)(们)(深)(沉)(而)(有)(力)(的)(想)(像)(与)(格)(局)(。
            根)(据)(以)(上)(的)(论)(析)(,我)(们)(知)(道)(,如)(果)(我)(们)(要)(建)(立)(一)(个)(现)(代)(合)(理)(,合)(乎)(人)(道)(的)(新)(中)(国)(,上)(述)(的)(两)(大)(建)(设)(——民)(主)(与)(法)(治)(的)(制)(度)(和)(中)(国)(文)(化)(传)(统)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”,缺)(一)(不)(可)(。我)(们)(中)(国)(人)(,一)(船)(地)(说)(,并)(不)(比)(别)(人)(坏)((有)(些)(人)(不)(以)(为)(然)(,五)(四)(式)(的)(反)(传)(统)(主)(义)(者)(便)(是)(如)(此)(,那)(些)(人)(“意)(缔)(牢)(结)(”的)(观)(点)(,渊)(源)(有)(自)(,但)(却)(禁)(不)(住)(比)(较)(与)(实)(质)(的)(分)(析)(),更)(不)(比)(别)(人)(笨)(;但)(我)(们)(的)(问)(题)(,我)(们)(的)(痛)(苦)(,为)(什)(么)(比)(许)(多)(国)(家)(要)(多)(得)(多)(?例)(如)(,英)(美)(两)(国)(政)(客)(自)(私)(的)(程)(度)(并)(不)(见)(得)(比)(我)(们)(的)(政)(客)(要)(少)(,但)(他)(们)(的)(政)(治)(却)(远)(较)(我)(们)(上)(轨)(道)(。那)(并)(不)(是)(因)(为)(他)(们)(比)(我)(们)(有)(道)(德)(,而)(是)(因)(为)(他)(们)(有)(比)(较)(健)(全)(的)(制)(度)(的)(缘)(故)(。他)(们)(的)(行)(政)(权)(、立)(法)(权)(与)(司)(法)(权)(分)(式)(可)(以)(相)(互)(制)(衡)(,他)(们)(在)(政)(治)(上)(必)(须)(尊)(重)(正)(当)(法)(律)(程)(序)(;虽)(然)(这)(样)(做)(要)(化)(许)(多)(时)(间)(,有)(时)(也)(影)(响)(效)(率)(,但)(较)(能)(避)(免)(许)(多)(有)(权)(力)(的)(人)(独)(断)(独)(行)(,或)(假)(公)(济)(私)(的)(行)(径)(.人)(的)(精)(力)(有)(限)(,坏)(人)(精)(力)(也)(有)(限)(,如)(果)(有)(健)(全)(的)(制)(度)(,坏)(人)(使)(坏)(也)(只)(能)(在)(制)(度)(上)(找)(漏)(洞)(;因)(为)(推)(翻)(制)(度)(比)(找)(寻)(制)(度)(与)(法)(律)(上)(的)(漏)(洞)(更)(为)(困)(难)(,虽)(然)(这)(样)(做)(,如)(果)(成)(功)(,可)(得)(更)(大)(利)(益)(。在)(有)(限)(的)(精)(力)(与)(比)(较)(能)(够)(更)(可)(靠)(地)(获)(得)(利)(益)(的)(条)(件)(之)(下)(,坏)(人)(在)(具)(有)(民)(主)(与)(法)(治)(制)(度)(的)(国)(家)(之)(内)(,也)(只)(得)(谋)(求)(眼)(前)(的)(小)(利)(了)(。因)(此)(,只)(要)(能)(建)(立)(起)(实)(行)(民)(主)(与)(法)(治)(的)(制)(度)(,坏)(人)(为)(害)(的)(程)(度)(自)(然)(也)(就)(缩)(小)(了)(。
            即)(使)(是)(日)(本)(,那)(是)(一)(个)(有)(文)(化)(而)(少)(思)(想)(的)(民)(族)(,近)(几)(十)(年)(来)(因)(为)(深)(受)(欧)(美)(文)(明)(的)(冲)(击)(以)(及)(高)(度)(工)(业)(化)(盼)(影)(响)(,也)(发)(生)(了)(许)(多)(严)(重)(的)(问)(题)(,但)(无)(论)(英)(美)(也)(好)(,日)(本)(也)(好)(,把)(它)(们)(的)(情)(况)(与)(我)(们)(相)(较)(,我)(们)(发)(现)(他)(们)(政)(治)(秩)(序)(与)(文)(化)(秩)(序)(,虽)(然)(产)(生)(了)(严)(重)(的)(危)(机)(,但)(因)(并)(未)(解)(体)(,所)(以)(本)(身)(总)(能)(多)(少)(产)(生)(一)(些)(自)(新)(的)(力)(量)(,对)(许)(多)(问)(题)(做)(相)(当)(程)(度)(的)(解)(决)(。当)(然)(,谁)(也)(不)(敢)(说)(他)(们)(的)(政)(治)(秩)(序)(与)(文)(化)(秩)(序)(将)(来)(一)(定)(不)(会)(解)(体)(。现)(在)(因)(为)(这)(两)(种)(秩)(序)(尚)(未)(解)(体)(,至)(少)(从)(表)(面)(上)(看)(来)(,他)(们)(仍)(有)(一)(些)(自)(新)(的)(力)(量)(对)(付)(他)(们)(的)(问)(题)(。如)(果)(将)(来)(这)(两)(种)(秩)(序)(解)(体)(了)(,我)(们)(可)(以)(说)(这)(些)(自)(新)(力)(量)(并)(不)(够)(丰)(富)(与)(有)(力)(,所)(以)(只)(能)(解)(决)(一)(些)(表)(面)(的)(问)(题)(,长)(期)(的)(苟)(安)(,使)(他)(们)(忽)(略)(了)(政)(治)(与)(文)(化)(上)(基)(本)(的)(矛)(盾)(与)(重)(大)(的)(问)(题)(,最)(后)(终)(于)(导)(致)(整)(个)(架)(构)(的)(瓦)(解)(,所)(以)(,终)(极)(地)(说)(,英)(美)(与)(日)(本)(将)(来)(如)(何)(当)(然)(是)(在)(未)(知)(之)(数)(。但)(我)(们)(暂)(且)(先)(不)(必)(替)(别)(人)(担)(忧)(,更)(不)(可)(存)(着)(希)(望)(别)(人)(垮)(台)(的)(卑)(贱)(心)(理)(,当)(务)(之)(急)(是)(设)(法)(解)(决)(我)(们)(自)(己)(的)(问)(题)(.
            反)(观)(我)(们)(的)(情)(况)(,解)(决)(问)(题)(的)(努)(力)(显)(得)(那)(样)(空)(虚)(、浮)(夸)(、形)(式)(化)(!所)(以)(当)(前)(的)(急)(务)(是)(,建)(立)(民)(主)(和)(法)(治)(的)(制)(度)(与)(推)(行)(中)(国)(文)(化)(传)(统)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”。易)(言)(之)(,新)(的)(政)(治)(秩)(序)(与)(新)(的)(文)(化)(秩)(序)(的)(建)(设)(是)(现)(代)(中)(国)(人)(民)(最)(根)(本)(的)(任)(务)(。如)(果)(我)(们)(有)(一)(点)(自)(知)(之)(明)(,这)(样)(艰)(巨)(的)(工)(作)(,前)(途)(困)(难)(重)(重)(,难)(以)(克)(服)(,实)(在)(会)(使)(我)(们)(产)(生)(畏)(惧)(感)(。前)(已)(言)(及)(,这)(是)(长)(远)(的)(工)(作)(,要)(大)(家)(群)(策)(群)(力)(,需)(要)(几)(十)(年)(,甚)(至)(几)(百)(年)(的)(时)(间)(才)(能)(趋)(近)(于)(目)(标)(。但)(问)(题)(不)(在)(于)(我)(们)(能)(克)(服)(多)(少)(困)(难)(,而)(在)(于)(是)(否)(仍)(和)(许)(多)(过)(去)(人)(士)(一)(样)(,在)(平)(原)(上)(、圈)(子)(内)(跑)(马)(——人)(马)(皆)(惫)(,却)(只)(是)(在)(原)(地)(兜)(圈)(子)(——或)(是)(否)(能)(确)(立)(正)(确)(的)(方)(向)(.不)(计)(收)(获)(,奋)(然)(而)(前)(行)(.把)(这)(件)(事)(说)(得)(更)(存)(在)(主)(义)(式)(一)(点)(,正)(因)(为)(我)(们)(还)(没)(有)(真)(正)(健)(全)(的)(民)(主)(与)(法)(治)(的)(制)(度)(,还)(没)(有)(丰)(富)(的)(、有)(生)(命)(力)(的)(、植)(根)(于)(自)(己)(土)(壤)(之)(内)(的)(现)(代)(文)(化)(与)(思)(想)(,所)(以)(今)(天)(为)(建)(立)(民)(主)(和)(法)(治)(的)(制)(度)(,与)(为)(推)(行)(文)(化)(传)(统)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”的)(努)(力)(,是)(令)(人)(兴)(奋)(.令)(人)(激)(昂)(的)(大)(事)(。我)(说)(我)(们)(还)(没)(有)(丰)(富)(的)(、有)(生)(命)(力)(的)(、植)(根)(于)(自)(己)(土)(壤)(之)(内)(的)(现)(代)(文)(化)(与)(思)(想)(,是)(以)(世)(界)(水)(准)(做)(衡)(量)(的)(标)(准)(,希)(望)(不)(要)(引)(起)(误)(会)(,我)(并)(无)(妄)(自)(菲)(薄)(的)(意)(思)(。如)(有)(读)(者)(以)(为)(笔)(者)(的)(评)(论)(过)(于)(苛)(刻)(,请)(径)(自)(取)(阅)(世)(界)(第)(一)(流)(的)(哲)(学)(、宗)(教)(、文)(学)(批)(评)(、思)(想)(史)(、人)(类)(学)(或)(社)(会)(学)(方)(面)(的)(巨)(著)(,我)(想)(他)(一)(定)(能)(够)(明)(了)(笔)(者)(的)(意)(思)(。因)(为)(我)(们)(近)(代)(苦)(难)(历)(史)(演)(变)(的)(结)(果)(,许)(多)(中)(国)(知)(识)(分)(子)(常)(因)(自)(卑)(感)(的)(驱)(使)(,喜)(欢)(自)(我)(陶)(醉)(,我)(盼)(望)(这)(种)(神)(经)(衰)(弱)(的)(病)(态)(今)(后)(不)(再)(缠)(扰)(他)(们)(的)(心)(灵)(。另)(外)(,许)(多)(人)(士)(常)(不)(经)(深)(思)(,喜)(欢)(随)(便)(恭)(维)(别)(人)(,背)(后)(却)(又)(是)(“文)(人)(相)(轻)(”的)(坏)(习)(惯)(。如)(以)(严)(格)(的)(理)(性)(态)(度)(处)(之)(,则)(两)(者)(皆)(可)(避)(免)(,我)(们)(在)(文)(化)(方)(面)(,加)(文)(学)(的)(创)(作)(,已)(经)(有)(了)(一)(些)(成)(果)(,但)(实)(在)(不)(够)(茁)(壮)(;在)(哲)(学)(史)(与)(思)(想)(史)(上)(的)(疏)(解)(工)(作)(也)(许)(也)(还)(有)(一)(点)(成)(绩)(,但)(在)(纯)(哲)(学)(、纯)(思)(想)(方)(面)(,则)(是)(非)(常)(贫)(瘠)(,大)(部)(分)(的)(著)(作)(,可)(说)(还)(没)(跳)(出)(诗)(人)(感)(兴)(式)(的)(玄)(想)(与)(逻)(辑)(家)(形)(式)(思)(维)(的)(巢)(臼)(.
            反)(观)(英)(美)(,那)(里)(保)(障)(自)(由)(的)(制)(度)(与)(文)(化)(早)(巳)(建)(立)(,民)(主)(与)(自)(由)(早)(已)(司)(空)(见)(惯)(,除)(了)(六)(0年)(代)(为)(黑)(人)(争)(自)(由)(的)(运)(动)(在)(美)(国)(轰)(轰)(烈)(烈)(地)(奋)(斗)(了)(一)(阵)(以)(外)(,实)(在)(没)(有)(什)(么)(好)(奋)(斗)(了)((其)(实)(美)(国)(城)(市)(问)(题)(极)(为)(严)(重)(,但)(这)(些)(问)(题)(掀)(不)(起)(大)(家)(激)(昂)(的)(情)(绪)(),大)(家)(所)(想)(到)(的)(是)(自)(己)(小)(圈)(圈)(内)(的)(小)(利)(益)(。在)(没)(有)(什)(么)(引)(人)(产)(生)(激)(昂)(情)(绪)(的)(日)(子)(里)(,生)(活)(也)(只)(得)(平)(淡)(的)(过)(下)(去)(。一)(些)(仍)(然)(要)(寻)(找)(奋)(斗)(目)(标)(的)(自)(由)(知)(识)(分)(子)(,如)(“公)(民)(自)(由)(协)(会)(”(CivilLibertiesUnion)的)(会)(员)(们)(,所)(能)(做)(的)(竟)(是)(派)(他)(们)(的)(律)(师)(,根)(据)(保)(障)(言)(论)(自)(由)(的)(美)(国)(宪)(法)(第)(一)(条)(补)(充)(条)(款)(,为)(黄)(色)(电)(影)(导)(演)(、黄)(色)(艺)(人)(在)(法)(院)(内)(辩)(护)(他)(们)(表)(演)(的)(自)(由)(;或)(者)(到)(法)(院)(争)(取)(美)(国)(纳)(粹)(党)(徒)(宣)(传)(迫)(害)(犹)(太)(人)(的)(言)(论)(自)(由)(,然)(而)(,许)(多)(“公)(民)(自)(由)(协)(会)(”的)(会)(员)(是)(犹)(太)(籍)(的)(知)(识)(分)(子)(。争)(自)(由)(争)(到)(这)(步)(田)(地)(,虽)(然)(其)(坚)(持)(原)(则)(不)(无)(可)(敬)(之)(处)(,在)(生)(活)(层)(面)(,毕)(竟)(是)(太)(无)(聊)(了)(。相)(反)(地)(。我)(们)(所)(处)(的)(社)(会)(,经)(济)(的)(发)(展)(与)(教)(育)(的)(普)(及)(已)(足)(够)(支)(持)(民)(主)(与)(法)(治)(制)(度)(的)(建)(立)(,但)(在)(社)(会)(上)(、政)(治)(上)(与)(文)(化)(和)(思)(想)(上)(有)(那)(么)(多)(重)(大)(的)(问)(题)(等)(待)(解)(决)(.这)(实)(在)(是)(一)(个)(具)(有)(挑)(战)(性)(的)(时)(代)(与)(环)(境)(:我)(们)(真)(得)(以)(开)(阔)(的)(胸)(襟)(,高)(赡)(远)(瞩)(,为)(建)(立)(一)(套)(民)(主)(与)(法)(治)(的)(制)(度)(和)(为)(推)(行)(文)(化)(传)(统)(“创)(造)(的)(转)(化)(”而)(切)(实)(的)(奋)(斗)(。如)(果)(我)(们)(这)(一)(代)(中)(国)(人)(,不)(愿)(对)(历)(史)(交)(白)(卷)(,今)(后)(必)(须)(超)(脱)(“民)(族)(的)(自)(革)(与)(自)(卑)(及)(文)(化)(的)(自)(傲)(与)(创)(伤)(”④,根)(据)(对)(未)(来)(确)(定)(的)(取)(向)(,重)(振)(中)(国)(知)(识)(分)(子)(特)(有)(的)(使)(命)(感)(,每)(人)(立)(大)(志)(,为)(建)(立)(明)(日)(的)(新)(制)(度)(、新)(文)(化)(而)(尽)(最)(大)(的)(努)(力)(!这)(是)(千)(秋)(的)(盛)(事)(,不)(朽)(的)(功)(业)(!
            来)(源)(:爱)(思)(想)(
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